Addition of Ancient Egyptian Art (4 millennium BC)

Traces of human activity in the Nile Valley date back to ancient times. A relatively coherent picture of this society gave us the monuments dated 5 millennia B.C. They showing us the primitive-communal nature of society, based on primitive agriculture and animal husbandry, fishing and hunting have also played a big role. Soil, formed from alluvial sediments, provided with food, in spite of the primitiveness of tools to a large number of people. In some farming communities began to emerge, based on artificial irrigation, and used slave labor, even a few initially. The development of income inequality within the community led to a rudimentary form of state power as the apparatus of oppression, created for the benefit of the emerging class of slaveholders. Constant civil war over the lands, canals and slaves ended in the middle of 4 Millennium with formation of two large public entities - the north and south. Their union, achieved victory of the South over the North (about 3200 BC.) became the formation of a unified Egyptian state.

The oldest human dwellings in the Nile Valley were pits and caves, made of strained for skins arranged awnings and tents. Gradually were appeared reed huts coated with mud. With the formation of class society in these huts for thousands of years has continued to live the poorest people of slave-owning Egypt. Housing of Chiefs initially allocated only for its size, the sanctuary is also arranged in large huts, on a hut or fence consolidated fetish of revered spirit. Gradually, for the construction of homes began to use raw bricks. Before the house arranged fenced yard, and later on built the wall. The oldest type of home - a hole - was a model for the burial, which took the form of oval pits were lined with a mat. So it means that all the initial types of homes, temples and tombs date back to primeval housing and they were considered as just dwelling for people, spirits, dead.

Common features in the planning and design of houses, palace, temple and tomb were subsequently remained in the architecture of slave-owning Egypt. With the invention of brick, tombs became square and faced of bricks. These tombs were able only to the most top of society - ordinary people still buried in the oval holes. The development of income inequality in the community caused the difference in the form of houses, reflected in the difference between the graves. Particular attention was drawn on the design of the grave of the community leader, because it was thought that the eternal existence of the spirit would ensure well-being for all the community.

In Ierakonpole was found the tomb of such a leader, that the walls were already covered with murals. To ensure the posthumous existence, which were considered as a continuation of the earth life, natives placed in the tomb the vessels with food and drinks and items of utensils. These things are an important source for the study of life in the Nile Valley until a preclass society, as well as to explore the origins of Egyptian art. They showed the development of technology in the difficult struggle of prehistoric man with nature, changes in the community, the development of an understanding of human phenomena in surrounding world. Lack of knowledge about the true connection between phenomena gave fantastic explanation to the nature of the world. Prevailing in this period beliefs and practices has determined the nature of art products, that were found in ancient tombs.

The earliest of them are pottery, decorated with the simple white patterns on background of red clay. Later on forms of vessels became more diverse, varied the type of painting and technique. Executed in red oil on the yellowish surface of the vessel, these were very simplified, sometimes close to the geometric ornament drawings, reflected ancient agricultural and burial rites. For example, it is very often have been depicted a float on the Nile, decorated with branches, with people who were worshiping, and the central role played by female figures, due to the leadership role of women matriarchy. Similar representations reflect also violently schematic female statuettes of clay and bone, is clearly related to fertility cults. Also close to these paintings on the vessels the above-mentioned wall painting from the tomb of the leader in Ierakonpole, represented, apparently, afterlife roam of the soul, part of the painting was connected with hunting rites, while in some cases, figures of humans and animals are scattered in the plane of the wall without any compositional communication with each other. Echo of ancient hunting rituals were found expression in the slabs of gray-green slate in the form of fish, ostrich, hippopotamus, etc., and intended for friction paint used during the ceremonies.

Images of people both in primitive paintings and sculptures described only in the most general and conditional form; only features were transfered, especially significant for the content of this image. The desire for greater visibility has led primitive artists to an image of different parts of the same shape from different angles. For example, Ierakonpole`s animals painting were given side-face, but the horns every here side-face and there face forward - depending on how it would be more clearly depicted a form of horns: the antelope and mountain goat - side-face, but a bull or buffalo √ face forward (so that was how they continue to represent the horns of animals in the art of slave-owning Egypt) on the same painting people were found as face forward as in various combinations of side-face images of different parts of the body with the core figure has the soles of the feet.   >>>